Table of Contents
Question 1 3
Question 2 7
Question 3 16
It can be defined as a systematic approach that evaluates the environment of the product. Determines the effect of each component of the product on the environment from the extraction of raw materials until the end of its useful life. The final reports will describe the specific impacts and realities of climate change, human health, ecosystem quality and non-renewable resources. Strains that use the standard methodology are very accurate in informing decision makers that they can reduce the negative impact on the environment and determine what can be improved on existing products and avoid changing sides because the most important problems at one time compare the effects in the environmental environment with other similar products. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a means of assessing the environmental impact associated with all phases of the product life from the extraction of raw materials to materials for processing, production, distribution, use, repair, and maintenance, as well as its elimination or elimination.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is improving and introducing new methods and publishing its new revisions to the evaluation of the life cycle of the product and is focused more on environmental issues to solve problems with improvements where resources and products are used more and more. Given the high growth of products these days, resources in the environment are widely used, leading to the destruction of the ecosystem. Therefore, all the products are going and choose the minimum form of environmental load. Therefore, the implementation of Kaka requires unifying all the improvements. The development and contribution were very important for the adoption of a free health community.
ISO 14040: 2006 and ISO 14044: 2006 are the main criteria that govern the procedures to carry out a life cycle assessment. The previous standard helps the principles and structure of environmental management to clearly review the system and its applications and some limitations for all businesses.
The latter includes all the previous procedures and product inventory analysis. The ESE 14044: 2006 Guide to the nature and quality of the data collected for the evaluation and interpretation of the life cycle.
The inventory analysis helps in the collection of reference data actions, as well as producing products that involve inputs, all resources, and emissions in the air, water, and land.
The data collected must be quantity and quality and must be included in the restrictions. The procedures for data collection may vary depending on the size of the project and its intended application. In addition, there are limitations in the collection of data. When it comes to multiple products, the materials and resources must be distributed in a way that can be documented and justified.
Energy consumption is also taken into account when using fuel and electricity since it is the main resource associated with the production of products.
Interpretation of data:
After an inventory analysis, the interpretation of the data is mandatory, as it is a means to assess the impact. This helps to study the consistency of the product in a certain amount. Changes can be considered and introduced through adjustments in the interpretation stage. The results of the interpretation must coincide with the results of the resource analysis.
A report can be constructed right in the final stage of the evaluation, which must be very precise. The report can be transparent and contain enough detailed information so that the reader can understand and understand the analysis that is being made. This result is communicated to the interested parties before the product is created and will indicate the result obtained.
The expert can consider the report and be referred by the independent parties on the most important issues. Therefore, the complete study of KA and its analysis describes the function of the product system and the units involved, the effect, types and methods used to study the interpretation of the data. The functional unit, which must be defined, is the basis of all the processes associated with the production plan. These are the objectives and scope of the life cycle assessment and the procedures identified in ISO 14040: 2006 and 2006: 14044.
The objective of this indicator is to compare the total environmental impacts attributed to products and services by measuring all the primary data and the results of the physical flows and evaluating how these physical flows affect the environment. This information is used to improve processes, support policies and provide a reliable basis for informed decision making.
The term life cycle refers to the idea that a fair and comprehensive evaluation requires an evaluation of the production, production, distribution, use, and disposal of raw materials, including all intermediate or necessary intermediate transport steps.
There are two main types of lacquer. These evaluations tend to identify or link the burden associated with the production and use of the product, or with a particular service or process, at some point (usually in the recent past). These agreements seek to identify the environmental impacts of the decision or proposed changes in the system considered (oriented to the future), which means that the market and the economic consequences of the decision could be taken into account. Social adoption is developed as a different approach to life cycle thinking, with the aim of evaluating the social consequences or the possible consequences. Socio-social education in health should be seen as an approach that complements environmental accreditation.
(ESSO 14040: 2006 and 14044: 2006) (Esso 14044 replaced the previous versions of Esso 14041 with Esso 14043.) The life of the greenhouse gases conform to the product specifications, such as the performance evaluation for the system the year 2050 and the standard accounting and communication cycle lifecycle cycle estimates of greenhouse gases can be.
The life cycle inventory (CSI) analysis involves the creation of an inventory of flows to and from the product system. Inventory flows include the flow of water, energy and raw materials, as well as emissions into the atmosphere, land and water. To develop the inventory, the flow model for the technical system was constructed using input and output data. Flow model It is usually illustrated through Flowchart includes procedures that will be evaluated in the related supply chain, and provides a clear picture of the technical limits of the system. The input and output data needed to build the model are collected for all activities at the system boundary, including the supply chain.
The data must be associated with the function block specified in the goal definition and the region. The data can be displayed in tables, and some explanations can already be done at this stage. The results of the inventory correspond to IC, which provide information on all input and output data as a primary flow to and from the environment of all the processes involved in the study.
Resource sequences can be listed in hundreds depending on system boundaries. For a general product (that is, in average values of the industry) or at the brand level, the data is usually collected through questionnaires. At the sectoral level, care must be taken to ensure that the questionnaires are filled with a representative sample of producers without saying the best or the worst, and are fully representative of any regional differences due to the use of energy, a physical source or other factors. The questionnaires cover the entire range of inputs and outputs, typically 99 percent of the product’s mass, 99 percent of the energy used in its production and any environmentally sensitive flow, even within 1 percent of the input.
Among the areas where the data flow is likely to be difficult to access is the technical envelope. Technoscience is more simply defined as an artificial world. These geologists are secondary resources, and these resources are theoretically 100% recyclable. But in practice, salvation is the main task. For Lecce, these products (products of the supply chain) are those manufactured by humans. Unfortunately, those who complete the questionnaire about a process that uses an industrial product as a means to achieve an end cannot indicate the amount of information they use. In general, they will have access to data related to the processes of entry and exit for the previous manufacture of the product. The subject in (b) should refer to secondary sources if you still do not have data from your previous studies. Typical sources for this information are national databases or data sets that come with KA tools or are easily accessible. After that, care must be taken to ensure that the secondary data source correctly reflects regional or national conditions.
People are more concerned about knowing the production of the products currently used
Wait if they are easy to use or can continue with modern ones
Environment The two products you choose to compare the life cycle are the bowl sofa and the woolen sofa. Nowadays, fashionable sofas have become the people in your home.
It was one of the most difficult objects in a luxurious life. Belongs to a class
Making furniture and sofas is not as easy as making a molded plastic cup. This is due to a large number of processes associated with production. They say they are sunburn, framing, belt, spring, joint, assembly. The previous process includes the variable inputs of raw materials, which can be renewable or non-renewable in different categories. The main raw materials for the production of wood, bowl, wool, silk and electricity.
Create plans for Gaby’s educational programs:
You must create two plans for two products, one for each. The first plan is a bowl sofa, which consists of a set of processes. The skin is the main raw material used here in this plan. The following are the set of operations used in this plan:
The scale of the plan is set to 10 and the cropping process is scaled as fixed. Therefore, the framing process can be considered as a reference to the remaining process. The output of each process here serves as one of the inputs for the next efficient flow process from the initial step to the final step.
Life cycle assessment report:
According to Gabi’s life cycle analysis of the bowl sofa and sofa-couch mentioned above, I can find that both products represent a small threat to the environment through emissions. Ozone depletion and human toxicity are the main diagrams that have been analyzed and examined to improve production.
The depletion of the ozone layer is much lower in the production of bowl sofas compared to the depletion of the ozone layer in the production of wool sofas. The main reason for this is associated with the release of CO2 in the air, which is 4.52E, while in the bowl sofa industry 0.377E.
Identify hot spots:
The analysis of the weaknesses in the use of renewable resources can be identified. The water used in the production process can be a weakness, since it is one of the renewable resources. The 1.71E m3 water unit was used to process the woolen fabric, and the 2.49E M3 water unit was used to process the bowl sofa.
Corrective measures can be taken in the area of water consumption for the cleaning process, where a solution can be developed to recycle the water used in the purification process for another
Clean and use again. Therefore, we can reduce water consumption and store it. Another area may be the release of inorganic chemicals into the atmosphere, where carbon dioxide is the main part. This can be reduced by using debris in the plan and forming a closed circuit.
The main problems to overcome are overcoming obstacles. The possibility of achieving the best recycling process for a closed cycle is less feasible in the production of the sofa mentioned above, because this is not associated with the complex manufacturing process. You can achieve a reduction in renewable resources. The relationship between the processes can be improved with a smaller feedback of the output that can be processed at the input of the previous process, and then operate in the recycling or closed cycle method. The use of diesel fuel for transportation can be reduced by using a large truck that transports all products simultaneously, instead of using small vehicles that transport the products several times. Therefore, the level of viability, in this case, is minimal.
As a result, the goal of achieving a better product and analyzing its life cycle is of great importance in all aspects of sustainability and ranges from small products to important innovations.
Heijungs, R., & Wiloso, E. I. (2014). Life cycle assessment. Sustainable Bioenergy Production, 99.
Anex, R., & Lifset, R. (2014). Life cycle assessment. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 18(3), 321-323.
Sadhukhan, J., Ng, K. S., & Hernandez, E. M. (2014). Life Cycle Assessment. Biorefineries and Chemical Processes: Design, Integration and Sustainability Analysis, 93-146.
Clay, S. M., & Fong, S. S. (2013). life cycle assessment. In Developing Biofuel Bioprocesses Using Systems and Synthetic Biology (pp. 15-17). Springer New York.